Jyothisa (Sanskrit jyothisha, from jyótis- "light, heavenly body": also spelled Jyotish and Jyotisha in English) is the ancient Indian system of astronomy
and astrology (also known as Indian astrology, Hindu astrolog y, and of late, Vedic astrology). It has three branches

Siddhanta: Indian astronomy


Mundane astrology, predicting important events based on analysis of astrological dynamics in a countries horoscope or general transit events such as war, earth quakes, political events, financial positions, electional astrology; house and construction related matters (Vastu Shastra), animals, portents, omens etc.


✠ Predictive astrology based on analysis of natal horoscopes and the moment a query is made.

✠ The foundation of Jyotisha is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas or scriptures, which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. The practice of Jyotisha primarily relies on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Jyotisha includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (nakshatras).

✠ Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotish charts, and jyotish concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home. To some extent, astrology even manages to retain a position among the sciences in modern India.[2] Following a controversial Judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, some Indian universities even offer advanced degrees in astrology

✠ The term jyotisa in the sense of one of the Vedanga, the six auxiliary disciplines of Vedic religion, is used in the Mundaka Upanishad and thus likely dates to Mauryan times. The Vedanga Jyotisha redacted by Lagna dates to the Mauryan period, with rules for tracking the motions of the sun and the moon.

✠ The documented history of Jyotisha begins with the interaction of Indian and Hellenistic cultures in the Indo-Greek period. The oldest surviving treatises, such as the Yavanajataka or the Brihat-Samhita, date to the early centuries CE. The oldest astrological treatise in Sanskrit is the Yavanajataka ("Sayings of the Greeks"), a versification by Sphujidhvaja in 269/270 CE of a now lost translation of a Greek treatise by Yavanesvara during the 2nd century CE under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman.

✠ The first named authors writing treatises on astronomy are from the 5th century CE, the date when the classical period of Indian astronomy can be said to begin. Besides the theories of Aryabhata in the Aryabhatiya and the lost Arya-siddhanta, there is the Pancha-Siddhantika of Varahamihira.

✠ The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the B?hat Parasara Horasastra, and Saravali by Kalya?avarman. The Horashastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 1-51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52-71) to the later 8th century. The Saravali likewise dates to around 800 CE. [5] English translations of these texts were published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively.

✠ Historically, the study of astrology in India was an important factor in the development of astronomy in the Early Middle Ages

Rashi - the signs (zodiac)

✠ Further information: sign (astrology), See also: Varga (astrology)

✠ A zodiac divides the 360 degrees of the ecliptic into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rashi[6]. Whereas Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (where the signs are measured from the point of the Spring Equinox on the ecliptic), the Jyotisha system favors the sidereal zodiac (where the signs are aligned with their eponymous constellations). The difference becomes noticeable over time as a result of the precession of the equinoxes. After two millennia, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result the assignment of planets to their sign positions in the Jyotisha system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in Western astrology the planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the time. The Sanskrit names of the signs are direct translations of the Greek names (dhanus meaning "bow" rather than "archer", and kumbha meaning "water-pitcher" rather than "water-carrier").

# Sanskrit Name Western Name Element
1 Mesa "ram" Aries ("ram") Fire
2 Vrsabha "bull" Taurus ("bull") Earth
3 Mithuna "twins" Gemini ("twins") Air
4 Karka "crab" Cancer ("crab") Water
5 Simha "lion" Leo ("lion") Fire
6 Kanyā "girl" Virgo ("virgin") Earth
7 Tula "balance" Libra ("balance") Air
8 Vrscika "scorpion" Scorpio ("scorpion") Water
9 Dhanus "bow" Sagittarius ("archer") Fire
10 Makara "sea-monster" Capricorn ("goat-horned") Earth
11 Kumbha "pitcher" Aquarius ("water-pourer") Air
12 Mīna "fish" Pisces ("fish") Water

Bhava - the houses
Further information: house (astrology)

✠ A house is a zodiacal division according to local time and location (i.e. an effectively "moving" division of the sky from the perspective of a fixed observer, rather than a fixed portion according to the stars as is true of the signs.) Houses are enumerated counter-clockwise from the house on the eastern horizon, passing through the "other side of the sky" and the western horizon to return to the starting point.

✠ More than one system to align houses with signs are recognized in Jyotisha. One is what Western astrologers call the whole sign house system, another is Sripathi, akin to a Porphyry house system. The modern Krishnamurti Paddhati also incorporates a Placidus house system

The significance of the 12 houses are:


Nature of Native, Appearance, Health, Character, Purpose of Life


Wealth, Family, Domestic Comforts, Early Education, Inheritance


Mother, Education, Home, Property and Land, Surrounding in Old Age


Children, Lover, Recreation, Devotion, Speculation and Gambling, Creativity


Health, Maternal uncle and aunt, Litigation, Servants, Mental Worries, Enemies


Younger Brothers and Sisters, Communication (Talking, Writing, Business Documents), Intelligence, Later Education, Short Journeys



Spouse, Business Partner, Death, Trade, Agreement, Honour and Reputation


Sex, Longevity, Failure, Family of spouse, Dowry, Inheritance, Imprisonment


Luck, Higher learning, Travelling, Religion, Mentor, Father, Prosperity


Profession, Status, Power, Father, Mother-in-law, Government and Business


Friends, Hopes, Earnings, Club or Social Activities, Elder Brothers and Sisters, Daughter/Son-in-law


Expenses, Sleep, Donations, Foreign stay, Private Enemies, Imprisonment, Hospitals

Graha - The Planets

Main article: Navagraha, See also: Dasha (astrology)

Graha literally means any heavenly body or point that can cast an impact on human affairs. It may be translated as planet for ease. Graha also includes lunar nodes (Rahu and Ketu) and sub-planets (upgrahas) which are not planets but no less effective than planets.

There are nine grahas[8]: the two luminaries, the five visible planets and the two lunar nodes. The extra-saturnine planets (Uranus and Neptune) are not included in the category of Graha.

Sanskrit-Name English Name Abbreviation Gender Guna Represents
Surya Sun Sy or Su M Sattva Soul, king, highly placed persons, father.
Chandra Moon Ch or Mo F Sattva Mind, queen, mother.
Mangala Mars Ma M Tamas energetic action, confidence and ego
Budha Mercury Bu or Me N Rajas Communication and analysis
Brihaspati Jupiter Gu or Ju M Sattva the great teacher
Shukra Venus Sk or Ve F Rajas wealth, pleasure and reproduction
Shani Saturn Sa M Tamas learning the hard way. Career and Longevity
Rahu Head of Demon Snake Ascending/North Lunar Node Ra M Tamas a Asura who does his best to plunge any area of
one's life he controls into chaos
Ketu Tail of Demon Snake Descending/South Lunar Node Ke M Tamas supernatural influencesa Asura who does his best to
plunge any area of one's life he controls into chaos

Nakshatra - The Lunar Mansions

Main article: Nakshatra

A nakshatra or lunar mansion , is one of the 27[9] or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle. Each nakshatra represents a division of the ecliptic (of 13 degree 20 minutes), similar to the zodiac. Traditionally the nakshatra position of the Moon is computed for the newborn's mental make-up, and calculations of planetary periods (dasha). Each nakshatra is further partitioned into four equal segments known as charan or pada[10]. Nakshatra is important in Astrological match making, Muhurta, Panchanga and Prasna affairs.[more information requested]

In ancient India, nakshatra was more important than rasi. Rgveda mentions Nakshatra 11 times, while rasi is mentioned only 4 times (in the sense collection rather than a zodiacal division).


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Lagna - The Ascendant

One's ascendant, or lagna, the rashi which is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of one's birth, is the most influential and important one. Of lesser importance but still some impact is the Janma Rashi, the rashi in which the moon lay while one was born. In addition, Sage Parasara mentioned a few special ascendants or Veshaish Lagni before mentioning the results of various divisional charts and houses. His mention that houses can be counted from special lagnas[clarify] clearly indicates that he wanted special lagnas to be used instead of lagna for some clear purposes. Some important special lagnas are follows

✶ Chandra Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Moon sign - very important lagna)
✶ Surya Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Sun sign)
✶ Karak Lagna (significator taken as ascendant for all grahas)
✶ Varnada Lagna (for social company)
✶ Shri Lagna (for prosperity and marriage)
✶ Indu Lagna (for wealth)
✶ Hora Lagna (for financial prosperity)
✶ Gati Lagna (for name and fame)

Drishti -The Aspect

Aspect is one of the most important phenomena that not only interlinks the planets with each other but also playing a role of bridge between signs. In Jyotisha the word Drishti is tantamount to Aspect, means glance or sight. It is the transfer of influences to another graha or rashi as a result of their situation in relation to each other.

The hierarchy of aspect can be categorized into two types as
✠ Aspect based on Planet or Sign's Nature
✠ Aspect based on Relative Distance

Aspect based on Planet or Sign's Nature
This is the system of aspect studied in Jyotisha. This holds that certain planet or sign sights another planet or sign depends on its nature[clarify]. This can also be divided into two kinds, namely
☆ Graha Drishti
☆ Rashi Drishti

Graha Drishti should prefer[clarify] when analyzing
★ Nakshatra Dasha
★ Chart with respect to the Moon
★ Sahams i.e. Arabic Parts

Rashi Drishti should prefer[clarify] when analyzing
★ Rashi Dasha
★ Chart with respect to Special Lagnas (AL GL, HL etc)
★ Vargas i.e. Divisional Charts

Aspect based on Relative Distance
This is the same method in vogue in Western Astrology. Tajik Varshaphala (Vedic Solar Return Chart) applies this technique to erect 14 different types of aspects also known as varshaphala yogas.

Argala - the intervention

Significations of various houses are interlinked. Support provided by one house to another is called Argala and the obstruction offered to supporting houses is called Virodha argala.

Graha (planets) in 2nd, 4th and 11th house cause argalas on a given house, whereas the planets in 12th, 10th and 3rd cause virodha argalas to 2nd, 4th and 11th respectively.

Benefic generally give shubha argalas, malefic offerpapa argalas. If however a malefic has an argala on house of which it is a significator, such an aragala can be termed as shubha. For example a malefics in 10th house cast papa argala to 9th house as 10th house is second from 9th. This may make the newborn non religious and give bad relations with boss/teacher, provided there is no virodh argala from 8th.

Arudha - the mounted image

The term Arudha Pada is also known as "Pada". Arudha literally means "mount" and refers to the IMAGE of a sign falling on another due to "reflection of the rays emanating from it and being reflected by its lord.

Keeping the reflection in view, the Karaka (Significator) can be taken to be the Moon. Count from a sign to its lord. Then count as many signs from the lord to arrive at the ARUDHA PADA. For example, if the Lagna Lord is in the fifth house, then count five signs from the Lagna lord to arrive at the ninth house. This ninth house becomes the arudha Pada for the Lagna.

Exception: The Arudha Pada cannot be in the same sign or the seventh from it. In case this happens, then choose the tenth house therefrom. For example, if the Lagna Lord is in the 4th house, then the Arudha lagna should be in the 4th from the 4th house i.e. the 7th house. But since this is not allowed, the tenth therefrom should be chosen. The tenth from the 7th house is the 4th house and the 4th house becomes the Arudha Lagna.

Arudha of 1st house is also called PADA LAGNA or ARUDHA LAGNA. Arudha lagna stands for "manifestation of self, in this maya (illusory) world". In this manner Arudha Pada can be computed for all the houses. They are called Dhana Pada (2nd), Bhratripada (3rd), Matri Pada (4th), Mantrapada (5th), Satrupada (6th), Dara Pada (7th), Roga pada (8th), Bhagyapada (9th), Rajyapada (10th), Labhapada (11th) and Upapada (12th). Jaimini discussed Arudha lagna (AL) and Upapada (UL) extinsively in his classical treatise.

Yoga - The Planetary Combinations

In Jyotish, Yoga means yoka or combination. Yogas are certain planetary combinations. Jyotish classics explaines hundred of thousands of yogas. Chandra (lunar combinations for general luck), Dhana (wealth related) and Raja (power and success related) yogas are often studied. Nearly eight hundred astrological yogas have been mentioned in ancient and early mediaeval Indian texts.

Shadbala - The Sixfold Strength

Shadbala means sixfold strength. Although these strengths are combinedly used for finding the effect of planets on the lives of the natives, there is more use of the strengths and we get the clue of those uses from their names. These strengths need not be used only predicting the results of the dasa, however, can be used for normal horoscopic interpretation.

Shad Bal consists of the following strengths

☆ Sthan Bal (Positional strength)
☆ Dig Bal (Directional strength)
☆ Kal Bal (Temporalstrength), inclusive of Ayan Bal (Equinoctial strength)
☆ Chesht Bal (Motional strength)
☆ Naisargika Bal (Natural strength)
☆ Drik Bal (Aspectual strength)
These strengths are computed for the seven Grahas from Sun to Saturn. The lunar nodes (Rahu and Ketu) are not considered.

Panchangam (almanac) - Panchaanga in Kannada

A panchangam (Sanskrit pañca?gam ) is a Hindu astrological almanac (or calendar), which follows traditional Indian cosmology, and presents important astronomical data in tabulated form. It forecasts celestial phenomena, such as solar eclipses, and weather (rain, dryspells), as well as more mundane occurrences. A typical Panchanga has tabulations of positions of the Sun, Moon, and other planets for every day of the year at a fixed place (longitude, latitude) and time of day (in 24-hour format IST). Remaining data can be calculated using the relative difference from this fixed place and time. Panchangas may contain information for more than one year, such as the Vishvavijaya Panchanga which is for 100 years.

The theories in the Surya Siddhanta and Grahalaghava formed the basis for the plethora of Panchangas in the past in different regions of the country - a culturally complex system. Thus, the Government of India has prepared the National Panchanga or the Indian national calendar in 1957 (was proposed by Saha and Lahiri in 1952), which is used in predictive Astrology. The Lahiri Ephemeris published annually is the most widely used English almanac in Jyotisha apart from the many Panchangas published in local languages, which are mostly based on the National Panchanga

Know Your Gemstones

Astro-Gemology is the synergy of two sciences - Astrology & Gemology. The basic theory of Astro-Gemology is that the nine planets are linked to the nine gems and that the stone of the planet governing fortune can generate fortune.Natural gems built by the tectonic pressure within the earth have the ability to heal diseases.

Similarly if you wear the gem of a Functional Benefic you can increase the transmission of Cosmic colors radiated by the planets which is absorbed by our etheric body thus satiating Color hunger and eliminating disease. Cosmic Colors are absorbed by the Chakras ( dynamos of Cosmic Energy ) in our ethereal body.The Chakras are related to our glandular system in the physical body. ( Deficiency of colours is defined as disease).The seven primary colors of the spectrum and the two secondary colors correspond to the nine revolving heavens. (VIBGYOR & infra-red and ultra-violet ).

The nine colours are understood to be the cosmic matrix and the very essence of the nine planets and it is through these colours that the planets radiate their energy and influence. When the visible colored lights are measured infra-red exhibits the longest wave length and ultra-violet the shortest. The wavelength of colored light emanating from the planets are found to match those radiating from each planet's corresponding gemstone(s).Researches show that the wavelength of light emanating from the Sun is identical to the wavelength of light emanating from Ruby - Red.
Here we give the Cosmic Colour and the Gem corresponding to the Nine revolving heavens.

Cosmic Colour Planet Gemstoneth
Red Sun Ruby
Orange Moon Pearl
Light Blue Jupiter Yellow Sapphire
Ultra-Violet Rahu Hessonite
Green Mercury Emerald
Indigo Venus Diamond
Infra-red Ketu Cat's Eye
Violet Saturn Blue Sapphire
Yellow Mars Coral

By using the amazing power for Vedic Gemology, you can overcome the barriers to success. Wearing Yellow Sapphire increases Jupiterian significations like Fortune, Wealth and
good will. Using Coral, can increase Fortitude, one of the Maritan qualities. Administrative ability, another Martian quality will be enhanced by wearing Coral. Wearing Diamond can enhance the Venusian significations. By using the correct Gemstone, your fortune will be enhanced considerably. Our Planetary Gem Advisor G Kumar is one of the founding members of the Planetary Gemologist's Association and he can recommend Gemstones for you which has the occult power to take you to prosperity!


Pearl represents the Moon. Believed to bring mental peace, economic prosperity,higher education and enhanced family status, its use during the period of the Moon brings favours. The Pearl is also used to heal eye related illnesses, any mental disorders and to assist good lactation. The ideal time to commence wearing a pearl is within an hour of sunrise on Monday. It is to be worn on the ring finger


Coral represents the planet Mars. Worn on the ring finger, it is supposed to be most favourable when mars is Prominent in one's life. Coral is widely used to enhance professional creativity. aid in the gaining of land and property, and to ensure a long married life. Believed to heal blood related diseases. the best time to start wearing it would be a Tuesday, within an hour of sunrise.


Wearing an Emerald is said to bring prosperity in education, banking and research. Emeralds are believed to be lucky for teachers, journalists and computer professionals. Emerald represents the planet Mercury. Therefore, it's most favourable during Mercury's phase. Emerald is believed to heal diseases related to the nervous system. Within an hour of sunrise on a Wednesday is ideal to commence wearing one. Emerald should be worn on the small finger.

Yellow Sapphire

Yellow Sapphire represents Jupiter and is said to bring luck and blessings from God. It is most effective during the period of Jupiter in your life. It is believed that using this stone blesses you with offspring, promotions, administrative powers and interest in religious matters. A Thursday within an hour of sunrise, is auspicious for commencing its use. 'Pushyarag' is worn on the index finger.


Diamond represents the planet Venus and brings favours such as success in matters of the heart, timely marriage and enhancement of beauty. It is also believed that wearing a diamond is most favourable when used in the period of Venus and when worn on the ring finger. Within an hour of sunrise on a Friday is auspicious for commencing the use of this stone.

Blue Sapphire

This stone represents Saturn and using it when this planet is ruling your life brings luck and prosperity. Mainly to do away the rheumatism and lung diseases, the 'neela' is also believed to help people engaged in meditation and yoga. A Saturday, within an hour of sunrise, is ideal for commencing the use of one. Ideally, the stone should be set in gold or silver and worn on the middle finger.


Hessonite This stone represents 'Rahu' ( North Node ) and hence brings luck when used during its rule in your life. It favours people who wish to be employed overseas and is believed to heal illnesses related to the intensive,skin and veins. The most auspicious time for commencing the use of this stone is within an hour of sunrise on a Saturday. It is worn on the ring finger.

Cat's Eye

The use of this stone brings favours during the period of 'Kethu' ( The South Node of the Moon ). It is believed that the use of Cat's Eye will help to avoid miscarriage, heal urinary disorders, allergies and grant educational progress. The auspicious time to commence using this stone is within an hour of sunrise on a Tuesday. Cat's Eye must be set in a gold ring and worn on the ring finger.


Ruby represents the Sun. It is supposed to bring you economic stability, favour from authorities and benefits from governmental bodies. It has also been used to heal eye related illnesses. The Ruby is most effective in the period of the Sun. The most auspicious time to start wearing a Ruby is on a Sunday, within an hour of Sunrise. Wear it set in gold on the ring finger.

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